Publications and results from our contributors


(Peer-reviewed) articles

  • The BathRC model: a method to estimate flow restrictor size for dual ventilation of dissimilar patients.
    Mathematical modelling and testing of split circuit with flow restrictor and one-way valves. By team Bath, UK.
    PDF of the paper >>
    Website where you can calculate volumes and pressure given this model>>
  • Splitting one ventilator for multiple patients – a technical assessment
    Study of volume and pressure in basic split system without any extra components. By team Oslo, Norway.
    Link to paper >>
  • [Peer-reviewed] Coping with COVID‐19: ventilator splitting with differential driving pressures using standard hospital equipment
    Study of volume and pressure in split system with flow restriction and one-way valves on expiration. By team Melbourne, Australia.
    Link to publication in Anaesthesia >>
  • [Peer-reviewed] A novel inline PEEP valve design for differential multi-ventilation
    On how to create an inline PEEP valve by converting a standard bag-valve-mask PEEP valve with the addition of a 3D printer collar.
    By Leonard Bunting, Steven Roy, Hannah Pinson and Tobin Greensweig.
    Link to publication in The American Journal of Emergency Medicine >>

  • [Peer-reviewed] Successful ventilation of two animals with a single ventilator: individualized shared ventilator setup in an in vivo model.
    A modified shared ventilator design that allows for individualization of tidal volumes and driving pressures, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP),
    and inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2), successfully used to ventilate two animals.
    By Michiel Stiers, Tom Bleeser, Matthias Mergeay, Hannah Pinson, Luc Janssen & Tom Schepens.
    Link to publication in Critical Care >>
  • [Peer-reviewed] Inline Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Valves: The Essential Component of Individualized Split Ventilator Circuits
    A review and discussion on the use of Inline PEEP valves.
    By Steven Roy,  Leonard Bunting, Stefan Stahl, and Dominik Textor.
    Link to publication in Critical Care Explorations >>

  • [Peer-reviewed] Differential Ventilation Using Flow Control Valves as a Potential Bridge to Full Ventilatory Support during the COVID-19 Crisis: From Bench to Bedside
    By the team at Mt Sinai, New York, USA.
    Link to publication in Anesthesiology >>

Other Resources

  • A better way of connecting multiple patients to a single ventilator
    The blogpost that was the start of this collaboration, by team Geel, Belgium.
    The original medium article >>
  • Galway Ventshare website
    Information on a split system with flow restriction, one-way valves, and an open-source application to use in combination with an individual flow meter. By team Galway, Ireland.
    Link to website >>
  • Semi Parallel Muli Patient ventilation
    A very original setup, with patients placed in series. Uses less/different components than the parallel setup, but leak alarms would have to be silenced. By Dirk Van Nieuwenhove, Aalst, Belgium.
    Link to description >>
  • Mount Sinai Health System Emergency Ventilator Sharing Protocol and Instructions for Use
    By the team at Mt Sinai, New York, USA.
    Link to online document >>
  • Shared ventilation: how to do it if you have to
    Blogpost about the use of a basic split setup with flow restrictor on the inspiration, including additional infomation about patient matching and monitoring. By Simran Kaur Matta, MD.
    Link to blogpost >>

  • Ventilator sharing device
    Website about the ventilator sharing device developed by team IfM Cambridge, UK.
    Link to website >>



Specific setups

3D printing


The International Workgroup on Differential Multiventilation


None of the contributors, or any other person connected with this international working group, can be held responsible for the information provided on these webpages. The content provided on this website might be incomplete or incorrect. The use of the described methods or any other reliance on the information provided by us is solely on your own risk.