Splitters

Circuit splitters are needed to split the inspiratory circuits and combine the expiratory circuits of all the connected patients.

Add splitters on the inhalation and exhalation circuits. 

You will need 

  • two splitters for two patients (one splitter on inspiration circuit, one on expiration),
  • six splitters to make a branching structure for four patients (three splitters on inspiration circuit, three on expiration).

Important properties

    • safe materials: all used materials should be safe for breathing purposes and for use with high oxygen concentrations
    • possible to disinfect: should at least have the possibility to be disinfected with ethanol. 3D printed components should be printed with professional equipment to reduce the chances of bacterial hotbeds forming in filaments and pores.
    • airtight: no air leakage to the room
    • low resistance: added resistance to the circuit should be as low as possible  

List of splitters

The information given below is so far collected ad hoc.

Medical circuit splitter

Commercial 3/4″ PVC splitter

3D printable splitter by Simran Kaur Matta and Peter West

VESper splitter by Prisma Health

3D printable splitter by Alexander Clarke

3-way 3D printable splitter by Simran Kaur Matta and Peter West

3D printable splitter by Stephen Gordon

Stainless steel splitter by Grégoire Le Brun and Jean Ruwet

3-way 3D printable splitter by Simran Kaur Matta and Peter West

Medical circuit splitter

Advantages

Already present in hospital

Drawbacks

N/A

Materials

Depends on brand

First test

N/A

Independent test

N/A

Additional Resources

Instruction video by Dr. Irvin Babcock on how to add splitters to a circuit:

Commercial 3/4″ PVC splitter

Advantages

  • Easy to obtain.
  • Cheap.
  • Reliable.

Drawbacks

To be determined.

Materials

PVC

First test

Tested by Dr. Bunting, MD.

Independent test

N/A

Additional Resources

VESper splitter by Prisma Health

Advantages

FDA approved.

Drawbacks

Not open source.

Materials

Unclear.

First test

Link to contributors >>

Independent test

N/A

Additional Resources

3D printable splitter by Alexander Clarke

Advantages

Open source.

Drawbacks

Takes quite long to print, as compared to smaller splitters.

Materials

See general guidelines on 3D printing.

First test

Tested by Dr. Mergeay, MD.

Independent test

No independent test yet.

Send us your findings.

Additional Resources

3D printable splitter by Stephen Gordon

Advantages

Open source.

Drawbacks

To be determined.

Materials

See general guidelines on 3D printing.

First test

Information on testing available soon.

Independent test

No independent test yet.

Send us your findings.

Additional Resources

Stainless steel splitter by Grégoire Le Brun and Jean Ruwet

Advantages

  • Reusable.
  • Autoclavable.
  • Advantageous design and material properties with respect to bacterial contamination.

Drawbacks

  • Quite heavy.
  • Needs to be produced by professional company.

Materials

Surgical grade stainless steel.

First test

Tested by Dr. Ruwet, MD.

Independent test

No independent test yet.

Send us your findings.

Additional Resources

3D printable splitter by Simran Kaur Matta and Peter West

Advantages

Open source.

Drawbacks

To be determined.

Materials

See general guidelines on 3D printing.

First test

by Simran Kaur Matta, MD

Independent test

No independent test yet.

Send us your findings.

Additional Resources

3-way 3D printable splitter by Simran Kaur Matta and Peter West

Advantages

Open source.

Drawbacks

To be determined.

Materials

See general guidelines on 3D printing.

First test

by Simran Kaur Matta, MD

Independent test

No independent test yet.

Send us your findings.

Additional Resources

3-way 3D printable splitter by Simran Kaur Matta and Peter West

Advantages

Open source.

Drawbacks

To be determined.

Materials

See general guidelines on 3D printing.

First test

by Simran Kaur Matta, MD

Independent test

No independent test yet.

Send us your findings.

Additional Resources

The International Workgroup on Differential Multiventilation

Disclaimer

None of the contributors, or any other person connected with this international working group, can be held responsible for the information provided on these webpages. The content provided on this website might be incomplete or incorrect. The use of the described methods or any other reliance on the information provided by us is solely on your own risk.